環境資訊中心外電；姜唯 翻譯；林大利 審校；稿源：ENS
未來地球研究計畫（Future Earth）下的子計畫及世界氣候研究計畫（World Climate Research Programme）的合作計畫「全球碳計畫」（Global Carbon），也發現2018年美國排放量呈現類似漲幅。
6月間，比亞里茨海街上抗議G7的遊行隊伍。 攝。（CC BY-NC 2.0）
Trump Disrupts France’s Effort to Green the G7 Summit BIARRITZ, France, August 26, 2019 (ENS)
The seven industrialized countries that make up the Group of Seven (G7) – Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States – had an ambitious environmental agenda mapped out before their meeting August 24-26 in Biarritz.
The agenda included planning for an international strategy to tackle climate change and an emergency meeting to fight the raging wildfires currently destroying the Amazon rainforest.
But their Declaration, issued today, contained no environmental points at all.
U.S. President Donald Trump snubbed the Amazon wildfires meeting, offering the excuse that he had scheduled one-on-one meetings with the leaders of Germany and India at that time. But the leaders of those countries were at the wildfires meeting, although Trump was not.
Trump held a news conference at the close of the G7 summit in Biarritz, but he gave no details on the climate crisis. The United States will host next year’s G7 meeting. Trump did make a pitch for holding the 2020 G7 summit meeting at his resort, Mar-a-Lago, in Palm Beach, Florida.
In a “Fact Sheet” issued by the White House on August 24, Trump says the United States energy and environmental record is “one of the strongest in the world, generating strong economic growth and energy production, while lowering emissions.”
In fact, lowering greenhouse gas emissions was President Barack Obama’s achievement. According to the 2017 BP Statistical Review of World Energy, since 2005 annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions did decline by 758 million metric tons, by far the largest decline of any country in the world over that timespan. U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2017 were 13 percent below 2005 levels.
In January 2017, President Obama, who took office in January 2009 and backed many carbon-lowering regulations, was succeeded by President Trump, who immediately removed many of the Obama-era regulations and has continued to open public lands and waters to fossil fuel extraction.
In 2018, U.S. carbon dioxide emissions rose by 3.4 percent after years of decline. The spike was the biggest in eight years, according to Rhodium Group, an independent economic research firm based in New York City.
The Global Carbon Project, a research project of Future Earth and a research partner of the World Climate Research Programme, reported a similar increase in U.S. emissions for 2018.
The data shows the U.S. is unlikely to meet its pledge to reduce emissions by 2025 under the Paris climate agreement. Under Trump, the United States is set to leave the Paris pact in 2020, and his administration has reversed many existing protections for land, water and wildlife.
And that is the full text of the G7 Declaration, the shortest text in recent memory.
Thousands marched 30 kilometers (20 miles) down the coast from Biarritz to denounce leaders over poverty and environmental damage. They say the G7 imposes “a system that serves the rich and the multinational. Social rights are being destroyed and the planet’s ecological disaster, poverty and war are everywhere.”
Even with the daily reminders that the climate crisis is upon us, the G7 did not commit to cutting emissions. While France and the UK joined Germany in pledging support to the Green Climate Fund, other G7 leaders failed to help poorer countries who suffer the consequences and costs of climate change.
However, during the meeting, the G7 leaders announced a US$20 million Amazon protection fund, which includes reforestation, to help repair the damage from the many wildfires now burning across the Amazon rainforest.
Before the G7 Summit in Biarritz, the host country, France, went to a great deal of effort to ensure the meeting was as green and sustainable as possible.
In a statement outlining these efforts, the French Government highlighted the green solutions of its sponsors and partners, saying, “To attain our ISO 20121 certification and Equality at a Major Event label goals, several sponsors and partners have provided support:
Engie, the French multinational electric utility company, provided green energy and low environmental impact solutions, including:
– a solar field powering electric trambuses, provided by the Urban Community of the Pays Basque with the support of the Syndicat des Mobilités, for journalists and the press center;
– 200 hydrogen-powered bikes, with the support of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine Region, for accredited journalists at the Summit provided by Biarritz’ own Pragma
Suez, a French waste management company, helped to reduce waste and to set up an extensive waste sorting system in the G7 Summit venues, and also a waste collection and recycling plan to convert waste for the benefit of the region;
Edenred, a French company specializing in prepaid corporate services, provided restaurant passes accepted by a network of 600 local restaurants as part of a “Welcome to the G7 in the Pays Basque” campaign, backed by the cities of Biarritz, Anglet and Bayonne and with the support of professional associations. This initiative helps to encourage people to try Basque cuisine and products and also to reduce food waste.
All of these initiatives have been showcased to raise the awareness of G7 delegations. France proposed G7 involvement through the signing of a “responsible delegation charter” including specific commitments. France asked G7 delegations to participate in one of the two offsetting projects – either reforestation of the Hergarai Valley in the Basque region or in Mali.